Air Navigation Services (ANS)
The Air Navigation Services (ANS) Section is responsible for regulating the following:
- Air Traffic Management (ATM),
- Communication Navigation Surveillance (CNS),
- Aviation Meteorology (AM),
- Aviation Search and Rescue,
- Aeronautical Information Service (AIS),
- Procedures for Air Navigation and Charting
Air Traffic Management (ATM)
Air Traffic Management is the dynamic, integrated management of air traffic and airspace including air traffic services, airspace management and air traffic flow management — safely, economically and efficiently — through the provision of facilities and seamless services in collaboration with all parties and involving airborne and ground-based functions.
It is the aggregation of the airborne and ground-based functions (air traffic services, airspace management and air traffic flow management) required to ensure the safe and efficient movement of aircraft during all phases of operations.
Communication Navigation Surveillance (CNS)
Communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS) are the three main functions that form the infrastructure for air traffic management and ensure that air traffic is safe and efficient.
Communication, i.e. aviation communication refers to communication between two or more aircraft, the exchange of data or verbal information between aircraft and air traffic control and the ground-based communication infrastructure of the ATM network (like the aeronautical fixed service). For continental airspace, VHF (civil) and UHF (military) systems are used whereas for oceanic areas, high-frequency systems and SATCOMs are used.
Navigation, i.e. air navigation, refers to the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of an aircraft from one place to another by providing accurate, reliable and seamless position determination capability.
Surveillance systems are used by air traffic control to determine the position of aircraft.
Aviation Meteorology is the field of meteorology applied to aviation that aims to contribute to the guarantee of safety standards, economy and efficiency of flights.
During the Chicago Conference in November 1944, in which the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) originated, it was established that member countries maintain a meteorological service in order to provide users with information on the atmospheric conditions necessary for the safety of air operations.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a United Nations agency that technically assists ICAO in the development of specific meteorological standards and procedures for aviation and personnel training.
Aviation Search and Rescue
Search and rescue (SAR) is a service is provided to survivors of aircraft accidents as well as aircraft in distress (and their occupants). The basic elements include a legal framework, a responsible authority, organized available resources, communication facilities and a workforce skilled in coordination and operational functions.
The SAR service, while related to the alerting service, is not part of the air traffic services (ATS), as it does not fulfill any of the ATS objectives as defined by ICAO. It is therefore often performed by agencies other than ANSPs (although close cooperation with the ATS units is ensured by the establishment of relevant procedures).
Each state defines the regions within which SAR service is provided. These regions do not overlap and normally coincide with the corresponding flight information regions (FIRs). Nevertheless, neighboring states are required to develop common SAR plans and procedures to facilitate the coordination of these operations. Based on such coordination (and subject to relevant national law), a state would permit immediate entry into its territory of search and rescue units of other states for the purpose of searching for the site of aircraft accidents and rescuing survivors. Also, arrangements are made so that aircraft, vessels and local services (which are not part of the SAR organization) cooperate in search and rescue efforts and assist the survivors of aircraft accidents.
The provision of SAR is organised by rescue coordination centers (RCCs). They are typically staffed 24 hours a day by trained personnel proficient in the use of the language used for radiotelephony communications and have means of rapid and reliable two-way communication with appropriate units and facilities (e.g. ATS units, SAR units, the regional COSPAS SARSAT Mission Control Centre, etc.).
SAR operations are conducted by SAR units. They are elements of public or private services designated by the states and are composed of trained personnel and provided with appropriate equipment (including appropriate communication equipment). They may be complemented by other units that do not qualify as SAR units but are nevertheless able to participate in such operations.
Pilots of other aircraft in the vicinity assist the SAR operation by obtaining and providing useful information to RCCs or ATS units, e.g. type and position (coordinates) of the aircraft in distress, information about survivors, weather, etc. Also, any distress transmission must be acknowledged and forwarded to the appropriate RCC or ATS unit.
SAR operations continue until all survivors are delivered to a place of safety or until all reasonable hope of rescuing survivors has passed. The decision to discontinue the SAR operation is made by the responsible RCC.
Aeronautical Information Service (AIS)
AIS is a service established in support of international civil aviation, whose objective is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity, and efficiency of international air navigation.
The manner in which aeronautical information is gathered and managed is governed by Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (ICAO Annex 15), which defines how an aeronautical information service shall receive and/or originate, collate or assemble, edit, format, publish/store and distribute specified aeronautical information/data. The goal is to satisfy the need for uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information/data that is required for operational use by international civil aviation.
Procedures for Air Navigation and Charting
PANS-OPS is an air traffic control acronym of procedures for air navigation services – aircraft operations. PANS-OPS are rules for designing instrument approach and departure procedures. Such procedures are used to allow aircraft to land and take off when instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) impose instrument flight rules (IFR).
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) outlines the principles for airspace protection and procedure design to which all ICAO signatory states must adhere. The regulatory material surrounding PANS-OPS may vary from country to country.
Similar to an obstacle limitation surface (OLS), the PANS-OPS protection surfaces are imaginary surfaces in space that guarantee an aircraft a certain minimum obstacle clearance. These surfaces may be used as a tool for local governments in assessing building development. Where buildings may (under certain circumstances) be permitted to penetrate the OLS, they cannot be permitted to penetrate any PANS-OPS surface, because the purpose of these surfaces is to guarantee pilots operating under IMC an obstacle-free descent path for a given approach.
For further information, refer to
- Laws of Fiji
- CAAF Standards Documents
- CAAF Application Forms
- CAAF Aeronautical Information Circulars
- CAAF Guidance Documents
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